■脳 fMRI 研究など 

functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Learning languages 'boosts brain'
"Learning languages enhances the brain, scientists believe
Learning a second language "boosts" brain-power, scientists believe.
Researchers from University College London studied the brains of 105 people - 80 of whom were bilingual. They found learning other languages altered grey matter - the area of the brain which processes information - in the same way exercise builds muscles. ... plasticity"  Quoted from BBC News site 2004/10  Retrieved February 6, 2013      続きの一部(早期が有利) 

Breakthrough in Brain Research: Learning Languages Without Stress
"..... comprehension comes first before speaking, reading or writing. ... Comprehension first is a simple idea that is not widely understood. People think they get it, but few really do. There are three excellent reasons why it is critical that comprehension be the first skill acquired by language students: ......
My next recommendation: Doodling ...
... Dr. Sam Slick, ...: “I played with Spanish rather than merely worked at it. For example, when I drove to or from school, I would make up imaginary conversations in Spanish with imaginary friends. People passing me must have thought I was crazy muttering to myself, but it worked!”
 ...We need to be as tolerant of mistakes as we are of infants acquiring their first language. ... However, ... Students have the best chance of acquiring a near-native accent if the language experience starts early, before puberty. After puberty, almost everyone will have some accent,...
.... Second language instruction on the left side of the brain in a traditional class is slow-motion learning because input from the instructor is evaluated by the student’s brain as “lies” and therefore erased almost before the student stands up to leave the classroom. ... But, ...  To the right brain, these are just patterns which are stored without editing until called upon by the left hemisphere (the site for talking and critical thinking).
Quoted from   Total Physical Response   Retrieved on February 6, 2013 from http://www.tpr-world.com/brain-research.html 


○大人の脳もまだ伸びる  ちょうどよいレベルで頻繁に練習、動機付け、安心、子どもじみていない興味深いもの
(brain plasticity)
"... neuroplasticity, meaning that the brain can still learn new concepts after various ages, ,,,, In a sense, the brain can be rewired."  
Fast ForWord family of reading intervention products   
• Critical tasks must be practiced at an appropriate frequency and intensity
• Practice must take place at the right skill level for the individual student—a skill level that continuously adapts to keep the student challenged, but not frustrated; 
• Multiple skills must be “cross-trained” at the same time for lasting improvement; 
Rewards must build as a student progresses, maximizing motivation; 
• The learning environment must feel “safe,” so students are encouraged to take risks; and 
• The content must be age-appropriate and engaging. 
So far, around 1,000 districts are using Scientific Learning’s ....
Quoted from E-School News: Frontiers of Brain Research: Neuroscience is shaping classroom practice (August 2009)  Retrieved February 6, 2013 from http://mindresearch.net/pdf/articles/eSchoolNewsAug09_p24.pdf 


"The brain acts as a network. ... So what does it take to bring about changes in the patterns of the brain? 
Frequency and intensity
. Just like a muscle, continuous and repetitive practice strengthens the brain.  ...... practice each and every day ... ... 
Adaptivity keeps the brain engaged in learning.  Carefully escalating task difficulty maintains its success rate ...  rewarding and challenging.
Simultaneous development of cognitive skills strengthens the connections ....  not unlike the multiple senses that are used when riding a bicycle. ...    
Timely motivation helps facilitate the release of chemicals like dopamine and ... cement connections and make them permanent
... Fast ForWord ...... has the ability to change the lives of millions of struggling students worldwide."
Transcribed from: The Reading Brain and the Fast ForWord program     Retrieved February7, 2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsSUamFekwI 3:14-


○「左脳・右脳」はもう古い  音声のみでなく視覚・触覚など  統合  易しいも難しいも  個人の好み コンテクスト 
Brain Research: Implications for Second Language Learning   
Fred Genesee, McGill University   (イマージョン研究者)
2000/12  ".... not fixed at birth. ... .... left and right hemisphere teaching. Recent research suggests that such an approach does not reflect how the brain learns, ...  ... exposure to unfamiliar speech sounds . .... in the auditory (temporal) cortex of the left hemisphere for most individuals. ... As connections are formed among adjacent neurons to form circuits, connections also begin to form with neurons in other regions of the brain that are associated with visual, tactile, and even olfactory information related to the sound of the word. These connections give the sound of the word meaning. Some of the brain sites for these other neurons are far from the ....... The whole complex of interconnected neurons that are activated by the word is called a neural network. 
.....What are the implications of these findings for teaching? First, effective teaching should include a focus on both parts and wholes. Instructional approaches that advocate teaching parts and not wholes or wholes and not parts are misguided, because the brain naturally links local neural activity to circuits that are related to different experiential domains. ... teaching phonics independently of the meaning ...  less effective than teaching both in parallel. .... 
  Second, ... teaching (and learning) can proceed from the bottom up (simple to complex) and from the top down (complex to simple). 
....Brains are not all the same. .... 10% of normal right-handed individuals have a different pattern of lateralization; ...
By implication, brain research confirms what we know from education research: that educators must make provisions for individual differences in learning styles by providing alternative grouping arrangements, instructional materials, time frames, and so on. Instruction for beginning language learners, in particular, should take into account their need for context-rich, meaningful environments. Individual differences in learning style may not be a simple matter of personal preference, but rather of individual differences in the hardwiring of the brain and, thus, beyond individual control...."
Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0012brain.html 


○Brain Keys Language Development
Beth Fleming, Family Life Specialist     Iowa State University Extension 
"Recent brain research .... There are "windows of opportunity," or critical periods in a child's life when the brain is biologically best equipped to learn language. With technological breakthroughs such as cochlear implants and MRI's ..... If a child hears little or no human sound, the brain waits in vain and eventually will "retire" these cells from this function and give these cells a different function. By age 10, if the child has no heard spoken works, the ability to learn spoken language is lost. ... between the ages of 4 and 12 an enormous amount of brain restructuring takes place. Depending on a child's experiences, the brain is deciding whether to keep or eliminate connection. If the child is receiving rich, sensory stimulation, a surge of learning takes place.  ... suggestions ...: Talk to young children. Because language is symbolic, it requires thinking just to "unlock" meanings of words. ... questions ......  Learning a new language becomes more difficult after age 12 "  Quoted from NNCC Retrieved February 6, 2013


○Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition
Quoted from NIH論文 2011/9 Patricia K. Kuhl, Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington;
Summary "The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language. ... There is evidence that early mastery of the phonetic units of language requires learning in a social context." 

 "Basing language teaching on the formation and development of neural networks rather than on the development of separate skills is the foundation of a solution to 700 years of failure."
June 24, 2012  Quoted from "Language Learning and Brain Research. Wellington College/Sunday Times Festival of Education." Retrieved February 7, 2013, from http://johnbald.typepad.com/language/2012/06/language-learning-and-brain-research-wellington-collegesunday-times-festival-of-education.html 

"In Immersion Foreign Language Learning, Adults Attain, Retain Native Speaker Brain Pattern
WASHINGTON-- A first-of-its kind series of brain studies shows how an adult learning a foreign language can come to use the same brain mechanisms as a native speaker. The research also demonstrates that the kind of exposure you have to the language can determine whether you achieve native-language brain processing, and that learning under immersion conditions may be more effective in reaching this goal than typical classroom training."
Quoted from Georgetown University Medical Center, released March 28, 2012   Retrieved February 7, 2013 from http://explore.georgetown.edu/news/?ID=62694&PageTemplateID=295 


○大人でも脳は育つ MRIで確認
Learning A New Language Makes the Brain Grow
 October 9, 2012 "Learning a new language can actually make parts of the brain grow, according to new research from Sweden.
Researchers at Lund University compared new recruits at the Swedish Armed Forces Interpreter Academy — who go from having no knowledge of a language such as Arabic, Russian or Dari to speaking it fluently in the space of 13 months — . ...... 
The parts that grew were the hippocampus, a deep-lying brain structure that is involved in learning new material and spatial navigation, and three areas in the cerebral cortex. “We were surprised that different parts of the brain developed to different degrees depending on how well the students performed ..."".
Quoted from PsychCentral    Retrieved February 7, 2013, from http://psychcentral.com/news/2012/10/09/learning-a-new-language-makes-the-brain-grow/45761.html 


朝日新聞2014/3/16Globe「脳のふしぎ」 G-7 「「解明に数世紀必要」 ノーベル賞・利根川進博士」 (インタビュー)より引用:「脳とはまさに人間そのもの、脳=人間、……。脳の仕組みはまだ、ほとんど分かっていないのが実情だ。……まだ、脳について、10%も理解できていないだろう。せいぜい数パーセント……。全体像を明らかにするには、2、3世紀という単位の歳月……。いまのMRIやCTでは、脳内の構造、変化のごく一部しか見ることができない。」







海外在住2012/09/15 05:47